Japanese: て Form Structures

This article is a part of a series on Japanese.

ている : enduring state

Most often, it means enduring state-of-being and translates as an –ing form. 歩いている : is walking.
There are some exceptions where it means enduring state of action though. Such examples include 知っている、行っている、来ている、起きている.

てある : resultant state

窓は開けている : the window is open; it chose to stay in this state.
窓は開けてある : the window is open; it was opened by someone.

てくる : do something and come

持ってくる : carry and come.
Can also be used to mean “do something and come back”, as in the famous 行ってきます!

ていく : do something and go

持っていく : carry and go

ておく : preparation for the future

ご飯を作っておく : prepare a meal for the future